This is a major compensation and like Fidyah it is also a compulsory Sadaqah (Wajibah). It is applied in various situations such as if a person breaks a fast intentionally or breaks an oath; Kaffarah would then be a binding form of redemption. Kaffarah will be necessary, however, they fall under two types.
1. The greater Kaffarah:
This Kaffarah applies to intentionally breaking a Sawm (fast)
For redemption of this, a person needs to free a slave (which is no longer applicable) or fast for 60 consecutive days (If a person breaks a fast intentionally they would need to fast for 60 consecutive days, unless they can’t fast due to poor health or old age, there are no exceptions to this ruling).
Due to illness or poor health, one may feed 60 poor people for a day (i.e. two meals a day, each meal is equivalent to a Fidyah which is currently set at £2.50 per person).
In the instance of not being able to feed 60 people in a single day then he/she may feed 1 person for 60 days. However, if a person was to try to quicken payment of this by giving all the money in one day to one needy person, Kaffarah would not be fulfilled, and his offering would only be equal to one days feeding.
2. The lesser Kaffarah:
This Kaffarah applies to breaking/violating an oath
For redemption of this, a person may free a slave (which is no longer applicable) or feed 10 poor people 2 meals in one day, or give each one of them clothing. Failing to do this, he may fast for 3 consecutive days.